Among of the body’s most vital and labor-intensive organs are the liver and the kidneys. They perform a wide range of tasks, including the expulsion of waste, the metabolism of various chemicals, the control of hormones, appropriate digestion, and proper coagulation.
The location of the liver
The liver, which weighs around 3 pounds, is the second-largest organ in the body. It has a dark reddish-brown hue and is located to the left of the stomach on the right side of the abdominal cavity, directly below the right hemi-diaphragm.
In other words, it is pressing against the right diaphragm’s dom and separating it from the right side of the thoracic cavity. It nearly completely occupies the right side of the upper abdomen and has a form that is roughly triangular. At the front, its bottom border just reaches the right ribcage edge; in the rear, it descends to the top of the right kidney.
A fibrous capsule, followed by a peritoneal fold, almost entirely encases the liver. Nearly all of the organs in the abdomen are enclosed by the peritoneum, which is smooth and shiny. The liver is supported and held in place by the peritoneum, which condenses into strong thickenings or peritoneal ligaments in four locations.
The liver’s outer surface is marked as follows:
1.25 cm below the right nipple, 1.25 cm below the tenth rib tip, and 2.5 cm below the left nipple are noted. The top surface of the liver is indicated by the line connecting the first and third spots. The liver’s lateral boundary is shown by the line connecting the first and second spots. The second and third points are connected by a line that symbolises the bottom edge.
The right and left lobes, the caudate, and the quadrate lobes are the four lobes or portions of the liver.
Bile is created by the liver cells and discharged into tiny passageways between the cells called bile canaliculi. They unite when they develop into bile ducts. The right and left hepatic ducts and common hepatic duct are made up of bile ducts that originate in various areas of the liver.
The gallbladder, which houses the very bitter dark green fluid known as bile, is located just below the liver, nestled into its own fossa or niche. The common bile duct, which is made up of the cystic duct and common hepatic duct, dumps bile into the duodenum as needed for food digestion.
Yet, the majority of the bile that enters through the common hepatic duct is stored in the gallbladder until needed. The lower portion of the oesophagus, the stomach, and the right kidney also leave imprints on the underside of the liver.
The location of the kidneys
Located in the upper retroperitoneal area of the abdomen, the kidneys are bean-shaped organs. In other words, they are situated between the posterior body wall and the smooth peritoneal lining of the upper section of the abdominal cavity, behind it. Thus, they aren’t inside the peritoneal cavity.
Below the diaphragm, one kidney is located on either side of the spine. They are immediately below the ribs. Each one has an adrenal gland, a little but significant cap of endocrine tissue that produces the body’s essential steroid hormones.
About one centimetre lower than the left kidney is the right kidney. These points are used to designate it on the body surface:
The midpoint of the line connecting the jugular notch to the upper edge of the pubic symphysis is where the upper end of the kidney is located, roughly 5 cm from the centre. This line also connects the lower end of the sternum to the transpyloric plane.
At the intersection of the transpyloric and intertubercular planes, the lower end of the kidney is located. In the second case, we are referring to the plane that is halfway between the transpyloric plane and the higher pubic symphysis. Around 7 cm of the kidney’s bottom pole protrudes from the midline.
The transpyloric plane’s hilum is about 5 cm from the midline.
The top and bottom of the back are denoted by lines that cross through the third lumbar and eleventh thoracic vertebrae, respectively. The side markers are situated between two lines that, respectively, pass 2.5 cm and 9.5 cm from the midline.
The dark red kidneys are responsible for meeting the majority of the body’s needs for eliminating fluid waste. Each filter removes waste in the form of urea and other nitrogenous compounds as well as excessive salt ions from around 120 litres of blood plasma each day.
It also keeps the amounts of salt and water in the system constant and protects the body from the damaging consequences of waste buildup. The urine produced is discharged through the ureter, a tube that extends downhill from the renal pelvis, the kidney’s collecting section, into the urinary bladder, the organ responsible for storing and releasing pee.